An Interactive Guide to International Efforts to Address Piracy in the Indian Ocean Region

Below you will find an interactive overview of international efforts by a wide range of stakeholders aimed at addressing Somali piracy. We hope that this will provide you with greater knowledge of the current, planned, and completed activities occurring to solve piracy, and increase capacity, in the Horn of Africa and Western Indian Ocean region.

To see entire range of activities for a program, please click the program name, you will be taken to a new page.

To sort by organization type, please use the filter above the table. 

Activity Status Key

  • Activity implemented
  • Ongoing activity
  • Activity planned or in development
  • No activity implemented or planned
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TitleNaval ResponseIndustry ResponsePlight of SeafarersMessaging and AdvocacyRegional CapacitySomali CapacityRule of Lawsort ascendingCoordination

SHADE does not coordinate naval operations, but seeks to avoid redundancies within naval task forces and independent deployer operations.

Industry participates in the SHADE meetings to update and discuss Best Management Practices with the force-providing nations and coalitions.

No activity planned or implemented.

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No activity planned or implemented.

An important aspect of the SHADE meetings is information sharing and the exchange of views between stakeholders from force-providing nations, regional countries, international organizations and industry groups. The SHADE meetings are also used as a forum to coordinate and de-conflict ongoing military counter-piracy operations in the Gulf of Aden and the western Indian Ocean. SHADE has been used by force-providing nations and coalitions to coordinate and discuss convoys through the Internationally Recognized Transit Corridor (IRTC), options for increased coverage by maritime patrol aircraft, and the threat of piracy in the Bab el Mandeb Strait, among other things. As a result of the SHADE process, China, India and Japan in early 2012 agreed to coordinate their merchant vessel escort convoys through the Internationally Recognized Transit Corridor (IRTC) with one country being ‘reference nation’ for a period of three months on a rotational basis. In June 2012 it was announced that South Korea would join these three countries to further enhance the naval operations against pirates.

No activity planned or implemented.

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The European Commission takes part in the EU’s Comprehensive Approach to the Horn of Africa. This strategy develops initiatives throughout the region to address problems such as governance, education, economic development, and food security. To implement their programs in both the region and Somalia specifically, the European Commission relies on its regional implementation partners; these partners include: Africa, Caribbean, and Pacific States (ACP), the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), the East African Community (EAC), the Indian Ocean Commission (IOC), the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC), and the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD). These regional implementers provide on the ground support for the European Commission’s, and other EU departments’ programs on the ground. 

The European Union's Instrument for Stability funds the  Critical Maritime Routes Programme, aimed at ‘enabling maritime administration and law enforcement in the region to respond effectively to armed robbery against ships and piracy by providing them with the necessary training and equipment’, primarily through the Djibouti Code of Conduct.  The EU's Critical Maritime Routes Programme is further discussed in its own project page.

In support of the ESA-IO Regional Strategy and Action Plan, the Commission, in partnership with the EEAS, is administering the Regional Maritime Security Programme (MASE). MASE commenced in 2013 after Start-up MASE, a program aimed at ‘preparing the ESA-IO region for the implementation of the MASE Programme through the development and implementation of all necessary structures, systems and coordination/communication mechanisms and the implementation of immediate capacity building activities,’ concluded in June 2013. The project has a budget of 37 million EUR and will be implemented over a five-year period. MASE is implemented through four regional organizations; COMESA, the EAC, the IOC, and IGAD. Full details of the MASE project can be found here

The European Commission works alongside the Federal Government of Somalia to implement their programs and help to develop Somali capacity. These programs include: EU Share, an initiative of the Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection department, or ECHO, which addresses issues of food security and famine; and ACP Fish II, which seeks to improve fisheries management and is funded by the European Union Development Fund and implemented by ACP, COMESA, and the EAC

No activity planned or implemented.

The European Commission coordinates with other EU departments active in Somalia and the Horn of Africa region as well as with regional implementing organizations and the Federal Government of Somalia.

Specifically for the MASE project, the Commission actively coordinates with EUCAP NESTOR, the EU Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP),  EU NAVFOR and the CGPCS Capacity Building Coordination Group (CBCG) in addition to implementing regional organizations. 

No activity planned or implemented.

No activity planned or implemented.

The SaveOurSeafarers counter-piracy messaging campaign highlights the human cost of piracy by sharing videos of individual hostage stories, in which former hostages describe extreme abuse inflicted on seafarers by the pirates. The SOS website also offers access to information on the cost of piracy and the location of pirate attacks.  

SaveOurSeafarers is a counter-piracy messaging campaign supported by 33 maritime associations, trade unions and P&I insurers with the missions of bringing an end to maritime piracy. The campaign serves to bring public awareness of the economic and human costs of piracy and to influence policy makers to take action to supress piracy through naval engagement, arrest and prosecution of pirates, capacity building in the Indian Ocean region, addressing the problems in Somalia, and developing criminal information systems. The messaging campaign includes key phrases like: “3,500 Somali Pirates are hijacking the world’s economy”, “Stop Piracy Act Now”, and “Oppose kidnap and torture of innocent seafarers”. 

No activity planned or implemented.

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No activity planned or implemented.

As part of the Comprehensive Approach to Somalia, the EU launched the European Union Naval Force Somalia – Operation ATALANTA (EU NAVFOR - ATALANTA ), in 2008 within the framework of the EU Common Security and Defence Policy. EU NAVFOR - ATALANTA was launched in support of United Nations Security Council resolutions 181418161838 and 1846. Its mandate is to protect vessels of the World Food Programme (WFP) and AMISOM shipping; protect vulnerable shipping on a case-by-case basis; help deter, prevent and repress acts of piracy and armed robbery off the coast of Somalia; and monitor fishing activities off the coast of Somalia. In March 2012, Operation ATALANTA was extended by the European Council until Dec 2014 with an extension of the area of operations to include Somali coastal territory and internal waters and extended again in November 2014 through the end of 2016. Currently deployed units under Operation ATALANTA can be seen here. In addition to Operation ATALANTA, EU NAVFOR has established the Maritime Security Centre – Horn of Africa (MSC-HOA) which is manned by military and merchant navy personnel and offers round-the-clock monitoring of vessels transiting through the Gulf of Aden. Merchant vessels can register with MSC-HOA prior to transiting through the region. EU NAVFOR and other naval forces have been greatly credited for the reduced number of pirate attacks off the coast of Somalia. 

EU NAVFOR and MSC-HOA both contributed to the development of industry's Best Management Practices. The MSC-HOA website provides information for the maritime community on updates to BMP and other industry self-protection guidance.

No activity planned or implemented.

No activity planned or implemented.

The EU EEAS provides support to build regional capacity to tackle piracy through several different programs. 

Under the Common Security and Defense Policy (CSDP), the EUCAP NESTOR training mission was announced in December 2011 and launched in mid-2012. 

In support of the ESA-IO Regional Strategy and Action Plan, the EEAS, in partnership with the Commission, is administering the Regional Maritime Security Programme (MASE). MASE commenced in 2013 after Start-up MASE, a program aimed at ‘preparing the ESA-IO region for the implementation of the MASE Programme through the development and implementation of all necessary structures, systems and coordination/communication mechanisms and the implementation of immediate capacity building activities,’ concluded in June 2013. The project has a budget of 37 million EUR and will be implemented over a five-year period. MASE is implemented through four regional organizations; COMESA, the EAC, the IOC, and IGAD. Full details of the MASE project can be found here

In cooperation with the Indian Ocean Commission, the EU launched the SmartFish Programme to promote sustainable exploitation of fisheries resources in the region. A summary of the EEAS’ regional capacity building initiatives can be found here.

With an overall goal to help establish a peaceful and secure environment in Somalia, and to reduce poverty by providing basic social services and increasing economic activity, the EU, as part of the Somalia Joint Strategy Paper for the period 2008-2013 will support projects under three pillars, namely: 1) Deepening peace, improving security and establishing democratic governance; 2) Investing in people by improving equitable access to affordable and sustainable social services: education, health, water and sanitation; and 3) Poverty reduction and the consolidation of peace through sustainable and equitable economic growth. The European Union Training Mission (EUTM) is working to strengthen the Federal Government of Somalia by providing military training to member of Somalia's Security Forces. A central part to the training courses provided by EUTM is the 'train-the-trainer' programme, which aims to develop Somali capacity for training future armed personnel.

Additionally, EUCAP NESTOR,  a civilian mission under the Common Security and Defense Policy (CSDP), aims to strengthen maritime governance capabilities and build Somali capacity through training and equipping Maritime police forces in Somliland and Puntland. 

No activity planned or implemented.

The EEAS coordinates with the other active EU departments working within the Horn of Africa. They also coordinate and work alongside the UN family, in their efforts in the region. Specifically, EU NAVFOR chairs the Shared Awareness and Deconfliction (SHADE) meetings on a rotational basis (with CMF and NATO as the other chairs).

 At the December 2008 meeting of the North Atlantic Council in Brussels, NATO committed to assist in fighting piracy off the Horn of Africa, in full respect of relevant UNSC resolutions.  In response to requests by the Secretary-General of the UN, NATO and individual Allied nations’ naval forces are providing a deterrent presence and are escorting World Food Programme-chartered vessels carrying humanitarian aid to Somalia.  NATO naval forces have also provided a maritime security presence and escorted African Union-chartered vessels carrying logistical supplies for the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM). Maritime Command Headquarters in Northwood, UK is the command for the Standing Naval Group, which has deployed SNMG1 and SNMG2 to execute Operation Ocean Shield. ). These operations include: ‘(1) To deter, disrupt and protect against pirate attacks, rendering assistance to ships as required and if available. (2) Actively seek suspected pirates and prevent their continued activity through detention, seizure of vessels and property, and the delivery of suspects and evidence to designated law enforcement authorities, in accordance with NATO agreements. (3) Facilitate and support the development of regional states’ capacity to conduct effective counter-piracy operations, in coordination with other related international efforts; and (4) Coordinate NATO operations and initiatives with coalition maritime forces, EU naval forces, and other non-NATO forces conducting counter piracy operations off the Horn of Africa.’ In March 2012 the North Atlantic Council, the governing body of NATO, decided to extend Operation Ocean Shield until December 2014 and in June of 2014 the mandate was extended to the end of 2016.

No activity planned or implemented.

The Allied Maritime Command is actively involved in disrupting acts of piracy and freeing hostages. An example would be the 12 May 2012 successful disruption of a hijacking attempt aboard a Yemeni dhow. NATO apprehended 14 piracy suspects and rescued 7 crew members. NATO also provides a weekly piracy update detailing threats in the area and advice to masters.

NATO has broadcasted messages in Somali language on Somali radio with an aim to: 1) Encourage Somali people to stay out of piracy business; 2) Explain the consequences of piracy; and 3) Encourage Somali people to report piracy activity to NATO Shipping Centre.

NATO offers, to  states that request it, assistance in developing their own capacity through trainings to local and regional partners to combat piracy activities. 

No activity planned or implemented.

No activity planned or implemented.

NATO co-chairs the SHADE meetings, a mechanism aimed at coordinating and de-conflicting activities between the countries and coalitions involved in military counter-piracy operations in the Gulf of Aden and the western Indian Ocean. NATO coordinates activities with both other naval coordinations and UN groups. 

No activity planned or implemented.

No activity planned or implemented.

MPHRP’s first phase of development consists of five-outputs: (1) Development of “good practice” guides for use by shipping companies, manning agents and welfare associations to support both seafarers and their families through the three-phases of piracy incidents: (a) pre-departure; (b) the crisis; and (c) post-release/post-incident. (2) MPHRP has developed training modules for coping with the stages of piracy. (3) The establishment of an international network of trained first-responders with appropriate skills within partner and associated organizations. (4) MPHRP is developing a network of professionals who work with victims of piracy in the aftercare. (5) A 24-seafarer’s helpline in coordination with SeafarerHelp, a project of the International Seafarers Assistance Network (ISAN), which maintains a 24-hour helpline, staffed by individuals who speak 27-different languages collectively. 

MPHRP also now offers a series of pre-departure and awareness training courses and materials from shipping companies, manning agents, seafarers and welfare responders. There also exists a Maritime Piracy Humanitarian Response Fund that helps provide funding for families if a major breadwinner is held hostage by Somali pirates.

No activity planned or implemented.

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The Maritime Piracy Humanitarian Response Programme (MPHRP) is a pan-industry alliance of shipowners, unions, managers, manning agents, insurers, and welfare associations. MPHRP is working to implement a coordinated model of responding to the seafarer impacts aspect of piracy and led the drafting of guidelines on “good practice” for companies and seafarer welfare organizations. 

No activity planned or implemented.

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No activity planned or implemented.

IGAD works closely with the European Union as an implementing organization in the region. Among the initiatives implemented by IGAD are the Regional Maritime Security Program (MASE) and SmartFish

IGAD serves as one of the four regional organization implementing the MASE project. The MASE project commenced in 2013, after the completion of a start-up program in June of 2013. The project has a budget of 37 million EUR and will be implemented over a five-year period. Full details of the MASE project can be found here

 In addition to MASE, IGAD also implements the joint EU-IOC SmartFish program, which works to develop better fisheries management in Somalia and the surrounding region. 

IGAD worked closely with the Transitional Federal Institutions, and continues to support the Federal Government of Somalia. In November 2012, shortly after the establishment of the Federal Government of Somalia, the President of Somalia, H.E. Hassan Sheikh Mohamud, met with the IGAD Executive Secretary in Mogadishu. They discussed issues of cooperation and support for Somalia, particularly security development and the role of IGAD in assisting the Somali government. 

As an implementing organization of the European Union, IGAD works alongside the EU and other regional implementing organizations to administer the Regional Maritime Security Programme (MASE), which seeks to develop Somali, and regional, capacity. In addition to MASE, IGAD also implements the joint EU-IOC SmartFish program, which works to develop better fisheries management in Somalia and the surrounding region. 

No activity planned or implemented.

The African Union, COMESA, the EAC, the Economic Community for West African States (ECOWAS), the IGAD, the Indian Ocean Commission, and the Southern African Development Community (SADC) adopted a regional action plan and framework for exchanging information, cooperation, joint action and capacity building measures at the COMESA-IOC Regional Workshop on Piracy for the Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA), held in Seychelles on the 19th and 20th July 2010. The Regional Action Plan against Piracy is divided into two pillars: an action plan for inland Somali actions and off-shore and regional action against piracy at national, regional and the international level. IGAD is leading the first pillar of the action plan. The Actions for inland Somalia plan takes account of the Reconstruction and Development Plan (RDP) and the EU Country Strategy Paper (CSP). The IGAD has helped coordinate between the Transitional Federal Institutions and the International Community. 

Additionally, IGAD coordinates with the EU on the SmartFish and MASE projects. 

China, India, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Japan, Kenya, Malaysia, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa and Yemen have all deployed naval ships and/or aircraft to combat Somali-based piracy. These countries are not part of the three multinational maritime coalition operations (CTF-151, EU NAVFOR - Operation Atalanta, and NATO - Operation Ocean Shield) and therefore often referred to as ‘independent deployers’. Their vessels have escorted merchant ships; provided close protection for designated merchant vessels, including for vessels released by pirates; conducted rescue operations for vessels in distress; and confiscated large quantities of weapons and other contraband.

No activity planned or implemented.

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Independent deployers participate in the Shared Awareness and Deconfliction (SHADE) mechanism. China, India and Japan have also agreed to carry out more effective coordination by establishing a convoy coordination working group as part of SHADE. 

SeafarerHelp is 24/7 help-desk and call-centre based in London designed to provide a free and confidential service to seafarers who require support or assistance. The call-centre is manned with trained personnel who speak the 27-dominate languages of the shipping industry. The International Seafarers’ Welfare and Assistance Network (ISWAN) is based on the model of the Citizens’ Advice Bureau (CAB) and works with maritime agencies to resolve the challenges or difficulties facing the seafarer. These can range from ‘dealing with bullying, un-paid wages, poor working/living conditions or just someone to talk to SeafarerHelp is completely free and confidential for all seafarers and their families around the world.’ The Maritime Piracy Humanitarian Response Programme (MPHRP) recommends SeafarerHelp as a useful programme for seafarers. SeafarerHelp will provide help in linking families to seafarers, listening to seafarers and helping resolve issues from bullying or lost wallet in a port to sickness and serious cases such as post-piracy, abandonment and personal injury.

No activity planned or implemented.

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The IOC, through its partnership with the European Union, took part in the launch of the MASE project, and continues to play a key role throughout its implementation. Start-up MASE, a precursor to the full MASE Programme, was completed in June 2013, leading the way for the commencement of the MASE Programme. The project, funded by the European Union Development Fund, has a budget of 37 million EUR and will be implemented by the IOC and other regional organizations (COMESA, EAC, and IGAD) over a five year period. Full detail of the MASE project can be found here.

In October of 2012 IOC organized the first regional workshop against money-laundering and piracy in the Seychelles. The UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) is helping IOC implement the terms of the EU funding agreement. The objectives are to strengthen de-valued capabilities, such as: investigations, indictment and imprisonment in regional countries. 

The IOC also works in partnership with the EU on the Smartfish Programme for the Implementation of a Regional Fisheries Strategy in the Eastern and Southern Africa and Indian Ocean (ESA-IO) region, which aims to contribute to an increased level of social, economic and environmental development and deeper regional integration in the ESA-IO through the sustainable exploitation of marine and lake fisheries resources. 

A main goal of the MASE project is to implement the Somalia Inland Action Plan, which is meant to address the root causes of piracy. The objective of the strategy is to develop organic solutions to prevent and repress piracy off the coast of Somalia, to support Somali regional and federal governments as well as local communities to address piracy in a holistic manner and to further develop capacity of Somali institutions. 

No activity planned or implemented.

The IOC coordinates with the EU on a variety of their partner projects, namely MASE. In addition to the EU, the IOC also works alongside the UNODC as well as regional implementing organizations. 

The IMB Piracy Reporting Centre receives reports following incidents of piracy as a result of the Declaration Condemning Acts of Violence Against Seafarers. 

IMB mission statement includes "reporting piracy and armed robbery at sea incidents to law enforcement, helping local law enforcement catch pirates and assisting in bringing them to justice, assisting and advising ship-owners whose vessels have been attacked or hijacked, assisting and advising masters and crew members whose vessels have been attacked, collating and disseminating information on piracy in all parts of the world, providing updates on pirate / armed robbery activity via the internet, providing access to the live piracy online map,  and publishing quarterly and annual reports detailing piracy statistics.

The IMB-PRC works and shares information with the IMO, various governmental, inter governmental and law enforcement agencies including all industry bodies in an attempt to understand the nature of this crime and reduce its effects to crew, vessel and cargo. The IMB-PRC also coordinates with all vessels in the ocean region by alerting the vessels of any pirate activity within the region. 

The 2011 Maritime Day Action Plan included an objective to provide care for those attacked or hijacked by pirates and for their families. The IMO Assembly adopted resolution A.1044(27), which, among other things, ‘expressed deep sympathy for the loss of seafarers, while in captivity; for their plight while held hostage in appalling conditions, often for long periods of time; and for their families, and appealed to all relevant parties, to take action, within the provisions of international law, to ensure that any hijacked ships, seafarers serving on them and any other persons on board such ships are immediately and unconditionally released and that no harm is caused to them.’ The IMO is continuing engagement with the CGPCS and the Seamen's Church Institute (which has produced a best practices report, entitled, ‘Post-Piracy Trauma Assessment and Treatment’), guidance promulgated by industry organizations and by EUNAVFOR. Additionally, the IMO Secretary-General of the IMO reached out to the President of the International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, seeking support for the care of seafarers attacked or held hostage by pirates. 

The IMO-led World Piracy Day placed a focus on the development of regional capacity to combat piracy. During 2011 the Sana'a Information-Sharing Center became equipped and operational, the Mombasa MRCC and the Dar es Salaam SRSC became operational as Counter-Piracy Information-Sharing Centers, and the Djibouti Regional Training Center saw continued development. 

Additionally, there was an ongoing review of existing legislation of the Djibouti Code of Conduct signatory states and a development of model legislation and regulations as well as an extensive series of workshops and training courses with Governments and their agencies in the region. 

IMO helped promote greater levels of coordination among navies, and further cooperation between and among States, regions and organizations. Information-sharing, the coordination of military and civil efforts and the development and implementation of regional initiatives, such as the IMO-led Djibouti Code of Conduct, were at the heart of the Organization’s work. The 2011 World Maritime Day Action Plan also aimed to promote greater support from, and coordination with, navies.

No activity planned or implemented.

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UNDP has provided assistance and capacity-building to the police in Somalia, including in Puntland and Somaliland. While Hargeisa prison has been completed in cooperation with United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), UNDP is facilitating work at Gardo prison and provides the Puntland custodial corps with equipment and training. In Puntland, UNDP supports a literacy project for inmates. UNDP shares response to piracy with other organizations such as UNPOS and UNDOC to deliver fair and efficient piracy trials in Somaliland and Somalia. 

In 2011 the UNDP was able to reopen the United Nations Common Compound in Mogadishu, a sign of the improving security situation. The UNDP is working across many sectors to help Somalia re-build effective state institutions. Working alongside regional and international actors, UNDP focuses on building and implementing shared solutions to the issues of democratic governance, the rule of law, and security, poverty reduction and environmental protections, achieving the Millennium Development Goals, gender equality/women’s empowerment, and HIV/AIDS. In conjunction with the United Nations Somali Assistance Strategy (UNSAS), the UNDP developed a five-year plan, Country Programme Document 2011-2015 (CPD) that outlines the nation’s recovery and development. 

No activity planned or implemented.

UNDP is coordinating activities around the Horn of Africa with other UN agencies, including the IMO, WFP, UNODC and regional States.No activity planned or implemented.

ITF supports Best Management Practices (BMP) as an effective way to protect vessels and seafarers from pirate attack. The IBF High Risk Area, Designation 2, which is included in the all post-February 2012 IBF CBAs (Article 17, IBF Framework Agreement), requires vessels transiting the Gulf of Aden and the 400nm off the coast of Somalia to adopt increased security measures. The provision of security personnel or security systems must be to appropriately reduce vulnerability of the vessel being attacked by pirates. The sufficiency of such extra security measures must be determined by the vessels physical vulnerabilities: type, size, freeboard during transit and speed. BMP4 is the minimum standard of protection for a vessel transiting the IBF High Risk Area.

The IBF High Risk Area, Designation 2, which is included in the all post-February 2012 IBF CBAs (Article 17, IBF Framework Agreement), requires that seafarers be entitled to 100% of their basic wage during the duration of their actual transit/stay of the HRA (including the IRTC). In the event of death or disability, the seafarer or their heirs are entitled to double compensation. Except when the vessel is transiting the Internationally Recognized Transit Corridor (IRTC), a seafarer is entitled to refuse transit and to be repatriated at company expense. The Extended Risk Zone (approved in the Revised IBF HRA (March 2011)), grants the entitlements of the HRA, but only commencing on the day the vessel is attacked. Also, any seafarer on a vessel within 12nm of the northern Somali Coast is entitled to double basic wages, payable for a minimum of 5 days (per additional day if longer), plus if a seafarer refuses to transit in the Warlike Operations Area, then the company must repatriate the seafarer with compensation equal to 2 month’s basic wages (note: this designation has been in effect since 6 October 2005).

No activity planned or implemented.

The UKMTO supports the industry Best Management Practices (BMP) and is listed in the BMP as the primary point of contact for merchant vessels in case of a pirate attack.

No activity planned or implemented.

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No activity planned or implemented.

The UK Maritime Trade Operations Office in Dubai acts as the primary point of contact for merchant vessels and liaison with military forces in the region. UKMTO Dubai also administers the Voluntary Reporting Scheme, under which merchant vessels are encouraged to send regular reports, providing their position/course/speed and ETA at their next port whilst transiting the region bound by Suez, 78°E and 10°S. UKMTO Dubai subsequently tracks vessels and the positional information is passed to CMF and European Union Maritime Security Centre Horn of Africa (MSCHOA). 

No activity planned or implemented.

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The International Contact Group (ICG) on Somalia has called for an effective international presence in Mogadishu and southern Somalia to improve the political and humanitarian situation. The ICG on Somalia is encouraging states to contribute to the Trust Fund established by the Contact Group on Piracy off the Coast of Somalia (CGPCS). During the September 2010 meeting of the ICG on Somalia, a discussion was held on the linkages between security and development, which include the challenges posed by piracy. The ICG on Somalia held its 22nd meeting in Roma, Italy in July 2012 to discuss recommendations for ending the current Transitional period and elect a new Somali president and parliament by 20 August 2012. ‘The ICG called for the immediate activation of the Elders’ Arbitration Committee, Roadmap Signatories Coordination Office, Technical Facilitation Committee and Technical Selection Committee and for the earliest possible conclusion of the selection process.’ The ICG condemned the kidnapping of aid-workers and seafarers and the disrespect for human rights and the rule of law. The communique noted: ‘The President of the Contact Group on Piracy off the Coast of Somalia reported on recent developments. The ICG recalled the Final Statement of the Dubai Second High Level Public-Private Counter Piracy Conference held on 28 June, which inter alia called for the development of regional and national maritime capacity and for participants to respect relevant international law related to fighting piracy in international waters.

No activity planned or implemented.

The International Contact Group (ICG) on Somalia was a leader in the Roadmap to End the Transition, which was created on 6 September 2011. The ICG on Somalia has been promulgating peace and reconciliation within Somalia by strengthening the law enforcement capacity by supporting training and restoration of rule of law. The group is co-chaired by the US and Norway. The ICG believed the long-term solution to piracy remains in Somalia. The group adopted a policy methodology that more security in Somalia will help lead to more development and thus less piracy. The ICG has been coordinating with regional governments, IGOs, and states who are engaged in the Horn of Africa region to agree on a joint regional strategy. In February 2012, a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) was signed between the UNPOS, IGAD, AMISOM (which includes Ugandan and Burundi forces), and the EAC. The transitional period ended in August 2012 with the formation of a Somali Parliament, and the election of a President.
  

United States-led international naval coalition of 25 nations, CTF-151 conducts integrated and coordinated counter-piracy operations in the Gulf of Aden, the Gulf of Oman, the Arabian Sea, the Arabian Gulf, the Red Sea and parts of the Indian Ocean.

No activity planned or implemented.

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No activity planned or implemented.

CTF 151 has served as coordinator for the internationally recommended transit corridor and the Somali Basin. In addition, CTF 151 co-chairs the Shared Awareness and Deconfliction (SHADE) Meetings with EU NAVFOR and NATO.  The US Navy’s Maritime Liaison Office (MARLO) facilitates the exchange of information between the United States Navy, the Combined Maritime Forces and the commercial maritime community in the United States Central Command's (CENTCOM) Area of Responsibility through the MARLO website, regional conferences and events, and a team of liaison officers.

Under the arrangement, the participating states (Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand) conduct coordinated naval and air patrols while facilitating the sharing of information between ships and the Monitoring and Action Agency (MAA). The Malacca Strait Sea Patrols (MSSP), the participating states conduct coordinated patrols within their own waters and have set up several control points. Joint air patrols: The Eyes-in-the-Sky (EiS) initiative provides combined and coordinated aerial surveillance of the Singapore and Malacca Straits. In August 2006, Lloyd's Joint War Risk Committee dropped the classification of the Malacca Strait as a war-risk area. Based on the International Maritime Bureau (IMB) record the number of piracy attacks in the Malacca Strait dropped from 38 in 2004 to zero in 2011. The Malacca Straits, according to the IMB, experienced 2 piracy attacks in 2013 and only 1 in 2013.

No activity planned or implemented.

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The MSP Intelligence Exchange Group supports the sea and air patrols through the Malacca Strait Patrols Information System (MSP-IS) which is used by air and sea assets deployed on scene to pass information of an unfolding incident to all Monitoring and Action Agencies (MAA) on a real-time basis.

Part of the second objective of MASE includes strengthening capacity building for police, court and prison staff and others involved in the arrest, transfer detention, prosecution and improsonment of pirates. Enhanced capacity of law enforcement agencies will be based on regional common standards and best practices in the ESA-IO region. MASE will also strengthen regional capacity to detect and prevent financial flows that support, facilitate, or propogate piracy. 

MASE plans to implement the Somalia Inland Action Plan to address the root causes of piracy. "The purpose is to initiate home grown solutions to prevent and repress piracy in Somalia, to support Somali administrations and communities in addressing piracy in a holistic manner".

The second objective of MASE regards the national and regional legal, legislative and infrastructural capability for arrest, transfer, detention and prosecution of pirates. MASE aims to strengthen the management of suspects in all phases of the process and put in place a harmonized legal framework including maritime and other piracy related laws.

MASE aims to support regional coordination and information exchange through an information sharing network and coordination with others on these initiatives.

The United States strategy includes continued and persistent interdiction-capable presence at sea off the Horn of Africa. This includes U.S. Navy and/or Coast Guard forces operating in the region with efforts coordinated among all multilateral coalitions such as Combined Maritime Forces, NATO's Operation Ocean Shield, EUNAVFOR's Operation Atalanta and forces independently deployed. The forces will continue to operate with the objective of disrupting attacks and "in appropriate circumstances, terminate the act of piracy and any resultant hostage situation with intent to deliver any surviving pirates ashore for prosecution".

The U.S. will continue to encourage international shipping firms to increase compliance rate for Best Management Practices (BMP) and hardening of vessels, including the use of properly trained and equipped armed security as well as pursue the implementation of international standards for privately conctracted armed security personnelle (PCASP).

No activity planned or implemented.

No activity planned or implemented.

Part of the strategy includes building capacity and political will of regional States to combat piracy and related maritime crime. This will focus mainly on creating institutional capacity for governance and the rule of law through strengthening national law to better enable successful piracy related criminal enterprise prosecution.

No activity planned or implemented.

"The U.S. policy aims to ensure that those who commit acts of piracy and related maritime crime are held accountable for their actions by facilitating the prosecution of suspected pirates and ensure that persons committing maritime crime are similarly held accountable by regional, flag, victim, or littoral States or, in appropriate cases, the United States."

 

 

The United States vows to "continue to lead and support international efforts to combat piracy and related maritime crime and urge other States to take decisive action both individually and through international efforts". As such, the United States will continue to lead and participate substantively in the ongoing work of the Contact Group on Piracy off the Coast of Somalia (CGPCS).

No activity planned or implemented.

No activity planned or implemented.

No activity planned or implemented.

No activity planned or implemented.

The Kampala Process brings together the TFG, the African Union, the UNPOS, and the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) to engage with regional Somali authorities to promote information sharing and generation, coordination of counter-piracy measures, economic development and drafting of laws to suppress piracy. The Kampala Process continues to work with the Federal Government of Somalia. 

The parties of the Kampala Process are relocating and expanding the presence of development partners in Somalia. This includes the facilitation and coordination of humanitarian assistance to the people of Somalia affected by war and natural calamities. The process seeks to promote programmes for the post-conflict reconstruction and development in Somalia, which includes guidelines for elections and educational systems. The framework can be found within the April 2010 Nairobi Memorandum of Understanding. The Kampala Process has been successful in bringing together the Somali regions and providing a forum for discussions among them. In 2013, the Kampala Process convened regional delegates and developed a Maritime Resource and Security Strategy. 

The Kampala Process has been used by the TFG and regional authorities to discuss how best to implement maritime legislation and strengthen Somali capacity to prosecute suspected pirates. The TFG, Puntland and Somaliland have agreed on a draft anti-piracy law for Somalia and have begun working on laws relating to the transfer of prisoners. Puntland and Somaliland have interdicted and arrested pirate suspects and accepted them for trial. Since the establishment of the Federal Government of Somalia, the Kampala Process has continued to serve as the venue for open dialogue between the regions and has produced a Maritime Resource and Security Strategy. 

The Kampala Process aims at promoting internal coordination, information-generation and sharing, and coordinating the counter-piracy offices of the Federal Government of Somalia, Galmudug, Puntland and Somaliland, respectively. No activity planned or implemented.

Denmark has been involved in maritime counter-piracy operations since 2008 when Danish navy vessels participated in CTF-151 from 2008 to 2009 and in NATO's Operation Oceans Shield since 2010. In 2011, the Danish contribution to Ocean Shield includes a support ship, including a helicopter and a maritime rapid reaction unit. The Danish Strategy pledges its continued support to counter piracy in the Western Indian Ocean by maintaining international military commitment as long as necessary. Specifically, Denmark will "deploy military assets as needed, including staff contributions, naval vessels including maritime helicopters as well as military surveillance aircraft...Reconsider the military contribution for the period 2017-2018 in light of the current piracy threat...Deploy personnel to relevant operational staffs and headquarters as well as coordination fora for the international effort...Work to retain combating piracy on the agenda of contributing partners and relevant organisations."

"The revised piracy strategy places increased focus on the protection of the seafarers." New regulations have been introduced "that give seafarers and their relatives better security in instances of piracy and which enhance the shipping lines' obligations in relation to provention, preparation and handling of piracy."  To this end, Denmark will specifically "Work in ILO to raise the new Danish regulations on increased protection of the seafarers in the event of piracy to an international level and to promote “Interim Guidelines on Measures Relating to the Welfare of Seafarers and their Families Affected by Piracy off the Coast of Somalia and prepare joint instructions for foreign seafarers' rights and obligations in relation to piracy and for the handling of seafarers' rights after release."

As part of Danish efforts to help regional countries build the capacity needed to enable them take over counter-piracy operations in the long run, Denmark will continue "to build capacity in order for the countries in the region to be able to handle the challenges of piracy in the long term".  Denmark aims to continue its efforts in four specific areas 1.) support for regional cooperation in information sharing and creation of a regional joint response to piracy 2.) maritime capacity building and domain awareness through support to build coast guard capacities 3.) continue work within the legal and security sector to encourage regional prosecution and imprisonment 4.) support to countering the financing of piracy by targeting the activities of pirate kingpings.

When possible to work within Somalia, Denmark will continue its support for the development of coast guard capacities in Somalia, and will "continue the support to Somali prisons, including ensuring that the necessary prison standard is maintained" while also aiding in the development of prosecution capacities in Somalia so that the entire legal finish can be handed over to the regional entities, Somalia in particular. 

Denmark's counter-piracy strategy from 2009-2014 included charimanship of the legal working group under the Contact Group on Piracy off the Coast of Somalia (CGPCS), which contribured to establishing the post-trial transfer system, in which convicted pirates in a regional country are subsequently transfered to serve out their sentences in Somali prisons. The 2015-2018 strategy pleges that "Denmark will continue to participate in the internatinoal community's efforts to ensure legally sustainable solutions for the combating of piracy. Denmark will simultaneously continue to work for effective prosecution of pirate in cooperation with relevant partners in the region. Going forward, efforts will be focused on prosecurition of the pirate kingpins who, until now, have escaped prosecution."

The 2015-2018 strategy focuses on aiming to "promote international coordination and focus on combating piracy and armed robbery at sea as well as to integrate approaches". The plan also prioritizes continued participation in the the Contact Group on Piracy off the Coast of Somalia, which is the primary coordination mechanism for the international efforts to combate piracy in the Indian Ocean, as well as in other international coordination fora.

The UK supports NATO's Operation Ocean Shield, EUNAVFOR's Operation Atalanta and Combined Task Force 151 as well as the UK Maritime Trade Operation (run by the Royal Navy and based in the British Embassy in Dubai).

The UK government supports the "shipping industry advice on self-protection measures to avoid, deter and delay pirate attacks and through government guidelines on the use of armed guards".

In 2012, David Cameron established the International Piracy Ransoms Task Force to work with threatened countries to reduce the threat of piracy and ransom payments. After eight months, the Task Force released its final report, outlining recommendations to (1) strengthen co-ordination between Flag States, the private sector and military responders in preparing for potential hostage situations, (2) develop a new strategic partnership between Flag States, the private sector and law enforcement agencies that coordinates efforts of those tackling and affected by piracy to create a unified effort to identify, pursue and prosecute pirates, (3) encourage implementation of anti-piracy measures including BMP4 under the leadership of flag states and supported by the private sector, and (4) develop new strategic partnerships in a united effort to breat the piracy business model.

The UK has agreements with the Seychelles, Mauritius and Tanzania to support countries in the region sucessfully prosecute seized pirates.

The UK strategy had included the opening of a Regional Anti-Piracy Prosecution and INtelligence Coordination Centre (RAPPICC) in the Seychelles. Since its inception RAPPICC has transformed into REFLECS3, the Regional Fusion and Law Enforcement Centre for Safety and Security at Sea, focusing on combating piracy and other forms of organized transnational crime.

No activity planned or implemented.

No activity planned or implemented.

No activity planned or implemented.

No activity planned or implemented.

No activity planned or implemented.

UNSOM works closely with the Federal Government of Somalia in support of their priorities for the interim (2013-2016) period. These priorities include: the consolidation of stability in the country, the fostering of national reconciliation, and building collaborative relations with the international community. In addition to helping the FGS deliver on its goals, UNSOM will aid in the political discussion and framework by providing policy advice as well as mediation and facilitation of the political dialogue, outreach, and reconciliation. 

UNSOM will support the Federal Government in its efforts to strengthen rule of law and security institutions in the country. The Rule of Law and Security Institutions (ROLSI) group of UNSOM will strategically complement the political activities of the Mission, which are aimed at supporting the stabilization and extension of the Federal Government’s authority throughout the national territory, by supporting the full range of security and rule of law responsibilities of professional and capable Somali national institutions. In the initial stage, the ROLSI group and the UN Country Team will undertake numerous advisory and capacity-building activities for security sector reform including: support of the National Security Plan, assistance with the drafting of key security sector legislation, advice and support with respect to the operationalization of the National Security Council and its Secretariat, the undertaking of security sector assessments in the Somali regions and recovered areas disengaging fighters, support to policy and plans for disengaged fighters including a national technical secretariat for DDR and disengaged combatants, and a National Programme for Disengaging Combatants and Youth at Risk, and facilitate and assist in community weapons control. 

 UNSOM, in partnership with the UN Country Team, will aid the Federal Government of Somalia in the coordination of international support, if requested. The FGS has expressed its intention to coordinate international assistance through the New Deal Compact. UNSOM, in complement to the technical support provided by the UN Country Team, will provide high level support for the Compact. No activity planned or implemented.

UNSC resolutions, under Chapter VII of the UN Charter, authorize member-states to ‘take such action by air, sea, or land forces as may be necessary to maintain or restore international peace and security’. UNSC resolution 1814 (2008) first allowed states cooperating with the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) to enter the territorial waters of Somalia, for a period of six months, and use all necessary means to repress acts of piracy and armed robbery. Quickly after passing the first resolution, the UNSC passed another resolution, UNSC Resolution 1816 (2008), which authorized naval forces to enter Somali territorial waters in pursuit of piracy. This resolution has been renewed several times, most recently by: UNSC resolution 2077(2012), which renews its calls on states and regional organizations to fight piracy and armed robbery at sea through the deployment of naval vessels, arms and military aircraft and through seizures and disposition of boats, vessels, and weapons used in the commission of those crimes. The European Union (EU) operation Atalanta, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) operations Allied Protector and Ocean Shield, Combined Maritime Forces’ (CMF) Combined Task Force 151, and other states acting in a national capacity in cooperation with first the TFG, and later the Federal Government of Somalia, have responded to these UNSC resolutions to suppress piracy and to protect vulnerable ships transiting through the waters off the coast of Somalia.

No activity planned or implemented.

In UNSC resolution 2020 (2011), the council stressed ‘the need for states to consider possible methods to assist the seafarers who are victims of pirates’ and asking the CGPCS and the IMO to develop ‘guidelines for the care of seafarers and other persons who have been subjected to acts of piracy’.

No activity planned or implemented.

In January 2012, the Secretary-General reported to the UNSC (pursuant to UNSC resolution 2015 (2011) on the progress of anti-piracy courts within the western Indian Ocean region. The report indicated that regional capacity to prosecute pirates would be available within 3 years. In March 2013, the UNSC adopted resolution 2093 (2013), recalling resolutions 2073 (2012), 1772 (2007), and 2036 (2012), authorizing the deployment of AMISOM forces until February 2014. 

Pursuant to UNSC resolution 2015 (2011), the Secretary-General reported to the council, that prisons had been built in Qardho and Garoowe, Puntland and that two prison advisors had been seconded from Norway, along with continual work on the prison in Hargeysa. In the Secretary-General’s report of December 2011 (S/2011/759), which was issued pursuant to UNSC resolution 2010 (2011), it was reported UNODC would come to an end in 2012 following Somaliland’s withdrawal from an MOU with the Seychelles and an unexplained release of a large number of prisoners from Hargeysa prison. Somaliland authorities issued a statement to the UNSC on 11 December 2011, which intimated a willingness to accept prison transfers under the MOU with the Seychelles. 

The UNSC has been calling on member-states to ‘investigate and prosecute not only suspects captured at sea, but also anyone who incites or intentionally facilitates piracy operations’. The UNSC has continued to reaffirm ‘that the failure to prosecute persons responsible for acts of piracy and armed robbery at sea off the coast of Somalia undermines anti-piracy efforts of the international community’ UN Security resolution 2020(2011). UNSC resolutions, under Chapter VII of the UN Charter, authorize member-states to ‘take such action by air, sea, or land forces as may be necessary to maintain or restore international peace and security’. UNSC resolution 1816 (2008) first allowed states cooperating with the TFG to enter the territorial waters of Somalia and use ‘all necessary means’ to repress acts of piracy and armed robbery at sea. The Chapter VII authorization has been renewed in resolutions: 1851 (2008),1897 (2009)1950 (2010), 2020 (2011)2077(2012), and most recently in UNSC Resolution 2125 (2013). Since UNSC resolution 1950 (2010), allegations of illegal fishing and toxic waste dumping within Somali territorial waters has been called upon to be investigated by states and prevented in accordance with international law. The UNSC has called on the International Maritime Organization (IMO), the International Police (INTERPOL), and industry groups to develop guidance to seafarers on preservation of crime scenes following acts of piracy. Additionally, the UNSC 1846 (2008) urged states parties to the SUA Convention to implement their obligations under this convention to build judicial capacity for prosecution of persons suspected of piracy and armed robbery at sea. UNSC resolution 1897 (2009) called on states to assist to strengthen capacity in Somalia, to bring those to justice who are using Somali territory to plan, facilitate, or undertake acts of piracy and armed robbery at sea. Pursuant to UNSC resolution 1918 (2010), the UN Secretary-General presented a report outlining seven options to prosecute and imprison persons responsible for acts of piracy or armed robbery at sea. In August 2010, the UN Secretary General appointed a special advisor, Mr. Jack Lang, to identify additional steps in pursuit of that objective. In January 2011, the special advisor presented a report containing 25 proposals, including measures to enhance existing counter-piracy initiatives, as well as a new action plan comprising economic, security, and judicial/correctional measures targeting Somaliland and Puntland, and the establishment of specialized piracy courts in these regions and in Arusha, Tanzania. In June 2011, the UN Secretary General presented a report on the modalities for the establishment of specialized Somali anti-piracy courts as suggested by Jack Lang in the report from January 2011. This report was followed up by a January 2012 report of the Secretary General concerning anti-piracy courts in Somalia, which informed the UNSC that regional capacity to prosecute pirates would be available within 3 years.

No activity planned or implemented.

No activity planned or implemented.

The NY Declaration recognizes internationally recognized Best Management Practices to ‘avoid, deter or delay acts of piracy’. Signatory States are committed to promulgating recognized best management practices for vessel self-protection of those vessels registered under their respective flag. In addition, the NY Declaration countries (except the UK) commit to ensuring that vessels on their registry have adopted and documented appropriate self-protection measures in their Ship Security Plans as part of the International Ship and Port Facility Security (ISPS) Code.

No activity planned or implemented.

No activity planned or implemented.

No activity planned or implemented.

No activity planned or implemented.

The NY Declaration countries (except the UK) commit to ensuring that vessels on their registry have adopted and documented appropriate self-protection measures in their ISPS Code.

No activity planned or implemented.

Working Group 1 (WG1) of the CGPCS, was tasked with promoting military and operational coordination between the navies involved in counter-piracy operations off the coast of Somalia, with particular focus on the Gulf of Aden, the Internationally Recognized Transit Corridor (IRTC), and in the Somali Basin. Through WG1, the CGPCS established an interactive partnership with the co-chairs of the Shared Awareness and Deconfliction (SHADE) mechanism to enable a fuller understanding of the operational situation and the international community to respond to the concerns of military commanders. Members of WG1 have agreed on a number of concrete steps that could be taken to mitigate threats such as extending the use of industry Best Management Practices, increasing the use of military Vessel Protection Detachments for vulnerable shipping, increasing the number of military assets available for the operations, and possibly increasing land-basing options in the region to support the ongoing counter-piracy operations. WG1 has now shifted its focus to regional capacity building and under the name 'Working Group on Capacity Building'>

Working Group 3 (WG3), 'Maritime Counter-Piracy and Mitigation Operations', tasked with addressing ways to strengthen shipping self-protection capabilities, has worked closely with the shipping industry and seafarer groups to complete and promote counter-piracy measures such as the Best Management Practices (BMP). Work is underway to develop audio-visual counter-piracy training presentation materials for mariners by industry. WG3 has also developed a draft framework for flag states to implement best practices to avoid, evade, and defend against acts of piracy. 

Working Group 3 (WG3) plays a role in addressing the plight of seafarers and works with industry and seafarer groups, such as the Maritime Piracy-Humanitarian Response Program (MRHRP) and the Seamen’s Church Institute (SCI), to formulate guidelines for seafarers’ welfare, especially for kidnapped seafarers and their families. CGPCS, through the Trust Fund, has supported the Hostage Support Programme that is being implemented by the UNODC.

Working Group 4 (WG4) of the CGPCS was tasked with improving diplomatic and public information efforts on all aspects of piracy and using messaging and outreach strategies to raise awareness of the dangers of piracy and inform the public in the area and abroad of the dangers posed by piracy. WG4 oversaw the implementation by UNPOS of a project aimed at “Utilizing Media to Prevent and Combat Piracy” funded by the International Trust Fund, which also funded another 18-month counter-piracy messaging project in Somalia implemented by UNPOS. WG4 developed the document Messaging to the International Community which was endorsed by the Contact group and reaffirmed that the Federal Government of Somalia should lead counter piracy messaging with the support of the CGPCS. In October 2012 Copenhagen hosted an event focused on counter-piracy messaging that was attended by representatives of the Somali diaspora, including community youth-leaders. In November of 2013 the Working Group concluded that it had completed its mission.

In 2009 Working Group 1 of the CGPCS carried out a regional counter-piracy capability development needs assessment and prioritization mission to East Africa and the Horn of Aden. The mission report titled “Regional Counter-Piracy Capability Development Needs Assessment and Prioritisation Mission to East Africa and the Gulf of Aden 7-13 September 2009” was endorsed by CGPCS in January 2010 as the basis for future work to address counter-piracy capability needs in the region. The needs assessment report recommended that (1) implementation of the Djibouti Code of Conduct should underpin all regional counter-piracy activity; (2) any activity, particularly in Somali, support the political process; (3) solutions should be comprehensive and include penal/judicial legislation, prosecution, media and communications, community involvement and alternative livelihoods as well as kinetic counter-piracy capabilities; and (4) national/sub-national training requirements should be matched with regional and international training opportunities. Working Group 1 has since been renamed the Working Group on Capacitu Building and is currently co-chaired by the UK and the Indian Ocean Commission. 

 

The Capacity Building Coordination Group (CBCG), with support from WG1, has developed an online Capacity-building Platform that serves as a needs assessment matrix to maximize transparency among participants of regional capacity-building activities and ensure an up-to-date picture of regional capability development. Furthermore, the CGPCS established the International Trust Fund to Support Initiatives of States Countering Piracy off the Coast of Somalia (The International Trust Fund) to support activities related to implementing the objectives of the CGPCS. The International Trust Fund has so far supported projects related to prosecution and detention in Kenya, Seychelles and Somalia as well as a public awareness promotion campaign in Somalia.

The CGPCS, through its five working groups has engaged the Somali regional and federal governments on a variety of counter-piracy issues. The online Capacity-building Platform, administered by the Capacity Building Coordination Group, provides an overview of Somali needs and provides a forum for international donors to provide support, monetarily or otherwise, to the development of organic Somali capacity. 

Both Working Group 2 and Working Group 5 deal with the legal issues that surround maritime piracy. Working Group 2 (WG2) of the CGPCS is now the 'Legal Forum of the CGPCS' and will exist to preserve the legal network and virtual legal forum of experts. In the past, WG2 has focused on encouraging apprehension, prosecution, and imprisonment of pirates within national legal systems and has developed a 'legal toolbox' to support states and organizations and strengthen their capacity to combat piracy at armed robbery at sea. Several possible judicial mechanisms considered by WG2 and the CGPCS are described in the UN Secretary-General's report on possible options to further the aim of prosecuting suspects of piracy and/or armed robbery at sea from July 2010. Ambassador Jack Lang was appointed by the UN Secretary General to investigate and provide a recommendation on which of these options provides the most viable way ahead. This resulted in the so-called ‘Jack Lang Report’from January 2011 and further elaborated on in a report by the UN Secretary-General from June 2011 on the modalities for the establishment of specialized Somali anti-piracy courts. In January 2012, the chairman of WG2 was consulted for the ‘Report of the Secretary-General on specialized anti-piracy courts in Somalia and other States in the region’. WG2 is currently co-chaired by Mauritius and Protugal. 

 

Working Group 5 has been renamed  'Disrupting Pirate Networks Ashore, it will continue to focus on financial flows of piracy and arresting pirate kingpins. Italy continues to chair WG5. At the 13th Plenary meeting, which took place in December 2012, the CGPCS welcomed the progress being made in piracy prosecutions, supported the continued implementation of the UNODC Piracy Prisoner Transfer Programme (PPTP), and encouraged the Somali authorities to pass a complete set of counter-piracy legislation without delay. The CGPCS also welcomed a new publicly assessable database, the United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research (UNICRI) Database on Court Decisions and Related Matters concerning piracy on the global level; the CGPCS encourages states to contribute to this database.

The CGPCS provides a forum for exchange of information and ideas, and coordinates the efforts of states and relevant organizations through five working groups: Working Group 1, the 'Working Group on Capacity Building', now concentrates on regional capacity building; Working Group 2, the 'Legal Forum of the CGPCS', preserves a virtual forum of legal experts; Working Group 3, 'Maritime Counter-Piracy and Mitigation Operations', tasked with discussing ways to enhance shipping self-protection measures; Working Group 4 tasked with issues related to public diplomacy and public information campaigns related to counter-piracy; and Working Group 5, 'Disrupting Pirate Networks Ashore' tasked with coordinating efforts to counter illicit funding and financial flows related to piracy. Furthermore, the International Trust Fund was established by the CGPCS to support initiatives related to the prosecution and detention of suspected pirates as well as other activities such as legal capacity-building. To facilitate information sharing between CGPCS participants and partner, a matrix mechanism has been developed under Working Group 1 to map and coordinate capacity-building efforts in the region, identify needs, and link donors to specific projects.

The Declaration Condemning Acts of Violence Against Seafarers (“Washington Declaration”) is a declaration of flag states designed to ensure post-pirate attack incident reports are filed with the International Maritime Bureau (IMB). These reports are focused on tracking the level and type of violence pirates’ use against seafarers. The signatories commit to work further ‘with ship owners and seafarers to ascertain the specific information needed to determine the human cost of these attacks’ to the IMB. The collated data will be used to see how hostages are treated and to determine trends in violence used by pirates. 

Signatories of the Washington Declaration commit to supplying post-incident reports to the IMB after pirate attack or hijacking.

No activity planned or implemented.

No activity planned or implemented.

The Maritime Labour Convention (MLC) provides minimum requirements for working on a vessel, which are 16 years of age (Regulation 1.1), but Standard A1.1 sets forth a minimum age requirement of 18 when the work is likely to jeopardize the health or safety of the seafarer.  It is generally thought transiting the High Risk Area (HRA), as defined by the International Bargaining Forum (IBF) collective bargaining agreement (CBA), would constitute work requiring the minimum age of 18. Title II of the MLC requires states, whose vessels fly their flag, to ensure seafarers’ have a bi-laterally signed employment agreement between seafarer and shipowner. 

 
When a CBA  forms all or part of a seafarer’s employment agreement, then a copy of that CBA shall be made available to the seafarer. MLC Guideline B2.2.2 sets a recommended calculation of payment at 1 and ¼ times basic rate pay for transiting HRAs. (Note:  Seafarers whose CBA fall under the IBF HRA Agreement (October 2008, revised March 2011), would have an additional bonus of doubled basic rate pay when the vessel is transiting the HRA or is attacked by pirates). MLC Regulation 2.5 requires that seafarers be granted the right to return home at no cost to themselves (upon end of employment).  Guideline B2.5 recommends if the vessel is scheduled to transit a Warlike Operations Zone (as defined by nation laws or seafarers’ employment contract), then the seafarer is entitled to repatriation at company expense. Regulation 4.1 calls for flag states to ensure shipowners provide prompt medical attention and have adequate measures for addressing seafarer medical care. Regulation 4.2 provides that shipowners must provide seafarers, in accordance with the laws of the flag and the MLC, assistance and support for financial consequences of sickness, injury or death occurring during the course of employment (including piracy). During time of injury or illness, a seafarer is entitled to “maintenance” which is the weekly allowance paid to seafarers during times of injury or illness and “cure” which is funds provided to cover medical expenses during the period of recovery. Shipowners are also under a duty to maintain a healthy and safe working environment (Regulation 4.3), which includes implementing BMP to mitigate pirate attacks. The signatory member-states are responsible for compliance and enforcement of the MLC. 

No activity planned or implemented.

No activity planned or implemented.

No activity planned or implemented.

The MLC incorporates and amends 37 ILO drafted conventions, which means upon entry into force, ratification of these earlier conventions will close and the doctrine of implied repeal will abrogate member-states’ prior commitments. When the treaty comes into force, it will become the fourth pillar of the International Maritime law regime, joining the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watch-keeping for Seafarers (STCW) and the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL). The MLC consists of 16 general articles of organization, with a code of five titles. These titles consist of both regulations, which are binding on member-states, and guidelines, which are intended to guide state practice. 

No activity planned or implemented.

Under the Djibouti Code, signatory states agreed to combine maritime security (predominantly regional navies) operations or exchange law enforcement officials to embark in the patrol ships or aircraft of another signatory. The IMO has entered into a partnership with the US AFRICOM in a shared project to link Maritime Situational Awareness (MSA) pictures to both military and civil agencies. This work is proving to be particularly effective and provides a Civil-Military Co-operation (CIMIC) approach to MSA whilst avoiding duplication of effort. There are plans to replicate the partnership for a number of regional States. This CIMIC approach has been implemented in Tanzania and there are plans to expand it to other countries in the region as part of the Protection of Southern Shipping Lanes initiative. The signatory-states have established three maritime information sharing centres: the Maritime Rescue Coordination Center (Mombasa, Kenya); the Sub-Regional Coordination Centre (Dar es Salaam, Tanzania); and a regional maritime information centre (Sana’a, Yemen). The ‘IMO is planning to undertake MSA projects in Kenya, Mozambique, Mauritius, Seychelles, Maldives in 2011 and 2012 and will try to link up with existing MSA projects to avoid duplication and ensure compatibility with civil maritime agencies. Similar work is planned for Djibouti, Yemen and Oman where existing VTS and AIS could be made available to create a Gulf-of Aden regional picture. This work is vital if the small navies and coastguards in the region are to improve their effectiveness. By having a comprehensive ‘picture’ of what is happening in territorial waters and parts of EEZs, maritime forces can be employed to cover the areas of unusual, and unscheduled traffic.’ (IMO November 2011 Djibouti Code of Conduct update) In February 2012, South Africa, Mozambique and Tanzania signed a trilateral agreement, allowing the three countries the right to, among other things, patrol, search, arrest, seize and undertake hot pursuit operations on suspects of maritime offences.

No activity planned or implemented.

Signatory –States to the Djibouti Code of Conduct agree to cooperate in ‘the rescue of ships, persons and property subject to piracy and armed robbery and the facilitation of proper care, treatment and repatriation of seafarers, fishermen, other shipboard personnel and passengers subject to such acts, particularly those who have been subjected to violence’. 

No activity planned or implemented.

The IMO strategy is to replicate ReCAAP and MOWCA, which are well-functioning maritime security arrangements. A regional coast guard was seen as a bit ambitious, thus the IMO goal is to develop state coast guards, which form an integrated network in eastern Africa. ‘All signatories also partake in a regular programme of regional training, coordinated through the Djibouti Regional Training Centre, established by IMO's Implementation Unit, including: operational interdiction training in partnership with the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Maritime Interdiction Operational Training Centre (NMIOTC), Crete, Greece; law enforcement workshops in partnership with the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC); and classroom training in Djibouti, in partnership with the European Union (EU) MARSIC (Maritime Security and Safety) project.' The Djibouti Regional Training Centre's building is set to be operational in September 2014. To date, more than 700 trainees have participated in courses in information sharing, coast guard duties and operatoins among other topics, conducted under the Djibouti Code of Conduct programme. The Djibouti Code of Conduct Project Implementation Unit (PIU) delivered and oversaw projects to build regional capacity to enable regional countries address these problems. The PIU focused on four main areas: Information SharingRegional TrainingReviewing National Legislation and Maritime Situational Awareness

 

In early June 2014 a high level meeting was attended by 80 delegates from the Djibouti Code of Conduct participating and signatory States as well as a number of donor states and international organizations. The meeting resulted in a resolution on the establishement of a new structure for regional implementation of the Code. IMO will continue to play a supportive role throughout the transitional period.

The Djibouti Code of Conduct, in May of 2012, signed five strategic partnerships with the UN FAO, UNPOS, UNODC, the World Food Programme, and the European External Action Service. These partnerships symbolize a joint commitment to combat piracy in the Western Indian Ocean and the Gulf of Aden, with a view to strengthen the anti-piracy and maritime capacity of signatory states. A main goal of these partnerships is to develop viable and sustainable alternatives to piracy within Somalia as well as further develop maritime capacity building. 

Signatories to the Code also undertake to review national legislation to ensure there are laws in place to criminalize piracy and armed robbery against ships. In addition, they are obliged to make provisions for the investigation and prosecution of alleged offenders. The Djibouti Code of Conduct PIU focuses on two aspects of domestic piracy legislation in signatory countries, namely ‘a state’s empowering of its law-enforcement forces to conduct arrests and criminal investigation under its piracy legislation’ and ‘a state’s piracy legislation being sufficient to meet the needs of its law enforcement and justice agencies’. Since 2011, workshops continue to be held addressing processes to enforce national piracy law at sea and achieve prosecutions. A trilateral agreement among South Africa, Mozambique and Tanzania, signed in February 2012, allows naval vessels to pursue maritime criminal suspects in the territorial waters of one of the other states. 

The Djibouti Code of Conduct provides for information sharing and coordination through a system of national focal points and piracy information exchange centres (ISCs) located at the Regional Maritime Rescue Coordination Centre in Mombasa, Kenya, and the Rescue Coordination Sub-Centre in Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania. In addition, a regional maritime information centre has been established in Sana'a, Yemen. All three information exchange centres became fully operational in the spring of 2011. The information exchange centres disseminate alerts regarding imminent threats or incidents to ships, as well as collect, collate and analyze information transmitted through the participants and prepare statistics and reports based on that information. The ISCs also engage with UKMTO, NATO Shipping Centre and ReCAAP ISC to develop an information sharing network to provide regionally generated reports of piracy and maritime security incidents across the entire Indian Ocean, Gulf of Aden and into SE Asia. Standard operating procedures have been developed between the 3 Djibouti Code of Conduct ISCs and the ReCAAP ISC and were officially signed in November 2011.

The Manila Amendment revised the Basic Safety Training (BST) requirements by adding Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities (PSSR) subjects on communications, control of fatigue, and teamwork. The STCW was revised to also include refresher safety training “within five years” which may be completed online if the seafarer is at sea when the refresher is due. Some states have courses on safety and survival skills in the event of a pirate related event.

The International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers(STCW) may be amended by either (a) a state-party proposing an amendment to the IMO Secretary-General, who circulates the draft to all IMO members and the Director-General of the International Labour Office, then sends the proposed amendment to the Maritime Safety Committee (MSC), where 2/3 majority vote is required; or (b) a conference of the IMO, whereby amendments are passed with a 2/3 majority vote (STCW Art XII(I)(a)and(b)). In October 1991 the United States became a signatory to STCW and the US Coast Guard (USCG) began implementing STCW in 1996 to officers and seafarers based on their US licenses and documentation. The National Maritime Centre (NMC) is the entity granting STCW training, as required by US law, for a seafarer maintaining a professional mariner license or Z-card, showing a seafarer’s classification. Every member-state is tasked with implementing the provisions of the STCW. During the 1995 conference to revise the 1978 STCW, a Fishing Vessel Personnel licence was proposed, none of the Indian Ocean Regional states signed, and the measure subsequently failed (Manoj Gupta, Indian Ocean Region 206 (2010)).

Port and Flag States are granted the authority to intervene in the case of deficiencies deemed to pose a danger to persons, property or the environment (regulation I/4). This can occur if the ship’s papers are not in order, if the ship is involved in a collision or grounding, if there is an illegal discharge, or if the ship is behaving in an unsafe manner. The 1995 Amendments created a “White List” which are states that have come into full compliance of STCW Convention and Code, as revised in 1995 and 2010. The evaluation process for being on the White List includes process for granting certificates, training centres, oversight, and flag and port control. A vessel from a non-White List flag state might be denied entry into White Listed ports, detained, denied entry, or vigorously inspected. A seafarer with certification from a non-White Listed state would be denied a Certificate of Equivalency and might be turned away by some manning agents, along with their sea time and training being highly scrutinized. 

The “Durban Resolution,” declaring the AU’s shared commitment to tackle the issues of maritime safety, security, transport, and environmental protection. Specifically, the AU condemned piracy and maritime pollution. The AU supports the initiative of the Maritime Organization for West and Central Africa (MOWCA) and IMO on establishing an Integrated Coast Guard Network in the sub-region and promotes sub-regional cooperation and coordination in the provision of coast guard functions inclusive of maritime intelligence, surveillance, safety and security, protection of environment and search and rescue.

No activity planned or implemented.

No activity planned or implemented.

No activity planned or implemented.

Member states to the African Maritime Transport Charter shall endeavor to invest in and finance established programmes for education and training in relevant maritime skills and upgrading maritime professionals in all areas of the maritime and ports industry. The Durban Resolution encourages the African regional economic communities to undertake or pursue supplementary projects in areas where there is need to build local maritime capacity and invites member states to provide the resources necessary to ensure the safety, security and protection of the marine environment.

No activity planned or implemented.

Chapter VIII of the African Maritime Transport Charter contains provisions concerning maritime safety and security. Member States agree to revise and harmonize, if necessary, their maritime, port, and inland waterways legislations in order to make them compatible with international instruments and to share information about unlawful acts perpetrated at sea. With particular regard to piracy, armed robbery, and other unlawful acts against shipping, member states commit to adopt effective measures to combat such acts through cooperation with other international bodies. The Durban Resolution condemns all acts of piracy and armed robbery at sea and contains provisions for member states to enact national legislation and to ratify and implement international instruments relating to maritime security, such as the International Ship and Ports Security (ISPS) Code.

Under the African Maritime Transport Charter, member states undertake to put in place a maritime communication network in order to make optimum use of mechanisms for control, follow-up and intervention at sea and ensure better organization of maritime traffic. In addition, member states should strive to create a strategic framework for the exchange of information and mutual assistance in order to enhance measures that can improve the safety, security and prevention systems and make it possible to combat unlawful acts perpetrated at sea, such as piracy and armed robbery. The Durban Resolution encourages the sharing of information pertinent to maritime security at sub-regional and regional levels.

AMISOM’s Vessel Protection Detachment (VPD) has been actively training with the European Union’s Naval Force – Somalia (EU NAVFOR). The EU NAVFOR has been escorting AMISOM and World Food Programme (WFP) vessels bound for Somalia. VDP is a specialized military detachment of AMISOM designed to act as vessel security for AMISOM supply and WFP vessels once the EU NAVFOR and NATO Ocean Shield mandates have expired. VPD will be on a case-by-case basis (Report of the Secretary-General to the UNSC).

AMISOM will be employing a UN approved Vessel Protection Detachment, whereby EU NAVFOR trained AMISOM detached soldiers will be placed onboard UNSOA chartered vessels.

No activity planned or implemented.

No activity planned or implemented.

No activity planned or implemented.

The purpose of AMISOM is to coordinate with Somali security forces, acting under Chapter VII of the UNSC, to reduce the threat posed by Al Shabaab and other armed resistance to AMISOM’s mandate to establish conditions for effective and legitimate governance across Somalia. AMISOM respects international humanitarian and human rights laws and Somali sovereignty and territorial integrity.‘The ongoing instability in Somalia contributes to the problem of piracy and armed robbery at sea off the coast of Somalia’ (UNSC Res 2036 (2012)), AMISOM is a land-based approach to re-gaining law and order and restoring peace to Somalia. In January 2013, AU Special Representative reaffirmed AMISOM’s partnership with the Somali National Intelligence and Security Agency (NISA). The re-opening of the NISA headquarters is seen as a step forward for re-establishing Somali state institutions, ‘The National Intelligence and Security Agency (NISA) has played a significant role in fighting terrorists and its efforts are clearly bearing fruits. I therefore wish to reaffirm AMISOM’s continued commitment to working with NISA as Somalia moves to stabilise the country and rebuild its institutions.(AMISOM’s support of NISA). Also in January 2013, it was announced that AMISOM would train Somali Police forces in Djibouti. 200 officers, both men and women, have begun a three-month training course aimed at strengthening the Somali Police Force,‘the AMISOM Police component has been working closely with their Somali counterparts and with the Federal Government of Somalia to build the capacity and professionalism of the Somali Police Force.’ (AMISOM to train Somali Police). 

AMISOM’s mandate as set out in paragraph 9 of UNSC resolution 1772 (2007) and most recently re-authorized by UNSC resolution 2093 (2013), under Chapter VII of the UN Charter, extends the peacekeeping mission to February 2014. UNSC resolution 2036 (2012), called for the expansion of AMISOM peacekeeping forces in Somalia. AMISOM’s security keeping function is to provide support the Federal Government of Somalia, to help restore peace, security and stability within Somalia, with a focus on neutralizing Al-Shabaab.

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), United Nations Support Office for AMISOM (UNSOA), the Strategic Planning Management Unit (SPMU), and the European Union (EU) have been actively coordinating with AMISOM to provide police, military and civilian support to Somalia. ‘AMISOM Humanitarian Affairs Unit works closely with the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Activities (OCHA), UNICEF-Somalia, UNHCR-Somalia, WFP and other UN agencies and NGOs to establish coordination mechanisms and the sharing of information. AMISOM also collaborates with the Somali Ministry of Humanitarian Affairs and Resettlement, Ministry of Health and other relevant authorities.’ (AMISOM activities).

No activity planned or implemented.

IMO has worked closely with industry to issue documents containing information, guidance and recommendations to governments, ship owners, ship masters and seafarers for preventing and suppressing armed robbery against ships. In addition, the Best Management Practices developed by the shipping industry have been promulgated by IMO in the shape of a Maritime Safety Committee Circular. A code of practice for the investigation of crimes of piracy and armed robbery against ships was issued in January 2010 and IMO worked with INTERPOL to integrate crime scene investigation guidelines into IMO’s package for seafarers. The IMO Maritime Safety Committee has also produced interim Recommendations for Flag States regarding the use of Privately Contracted Armed Security Personnel on board ships in the High Risk Area (MSC.1/Circ.1405/Rev.2) and Interim Recommendations for Port and Coastal States regarding the use of Privately Contracted Armed Security Personnel on board ships in the High Risk Area (MSC.1/Circ.1408). Interim guidance to private maritime security companies and shipowners, ship operators, and shipmasters on the use of privately contracted armed security personnel on board ships in the High Risk Area was adopted in May 2012. More information on IMO piracy guildance can be found here.

IMO has established two joint working gorups with the ILO on seafer issues: the Joint IMO/ILO Ad Hoc Expert Working Group on Fair Treatment of Seafarers and the Joint IMO/ILO Ad Hoc Expert Working Group on Liability and Compensation regarding Claims for Death, Personal Injury and Abandonment of Seafarers. Among other accomplishments, their work created Guidelines on fair treatment of seafarers in the event of a maritime accident, adopted by IMO's Legal Committee in 2006. The guildlines recognize seafarers as a special category of worker with needs for special protection in the event of a maritime accident and during any investigation and detention by public authorities. IMO also provides guidance to shipowners and ship operators, shipmasters and crews on preventing and suppressing acts of piracy and armed robbery against ships (MSC.1/Circ. 1334) and published guildance on training and certification requirements for ship security officers and seafarers with designated security duities. This guidance is intended to aid seafarers who may have experienced difficulty obtaining necessary certification under the the 2010 Manila amendments to the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers (STCW). Every year, IMO celebrates Day of the Seafarer on June 25th, giving the public a chance to voice their support for seafarers.

No activity planned or implemented.

IMO is involved in maritime security-related capacity building through the ITCP and multi-donor trust funds such as the IMO Djibouti Code of Conduct Trust Fund, the International Maritime Security Trust Fund, and the IMO Malacca and Singapore Straits Trust Fund. Any entity may contribute to the fund, and in particular IMO Member States, international and regional organizations and the maritime industry are encouraged to do so. 

IMO is planning to work with other UN agencies and organizations to build a sustainable Somali fishing sector/industry, in particular focusing on vessel safety, seamanship training, maritime situational awareness and maritime law enforcement / fishery protection capability. To support the Somali maritime sector, IMO will also focus on developing Somali seafarer education, training and certification centers, securing port areas as a basis for expansion of security controlled zones in coastal areas and as bases for coast guards under the ISPS Code port security programs and procedures.

Under the Djibouti Code of Conduct, the IMO and UNODC are conducting reviews of national piracy laws and providing training to national law drafters, sea-going law-enforcers and justice ministry prosecutors in the procedures of a piracy arrest and providing direct assistance to states upon request. 

In early January 2012, the Secretary-General of IMO appointed a Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Maritime Security and Anti-Piracy Programmes, Mr. Hartmut Hesse, who will be taking responsibility for the implementation of the Djibouti Code of Conduct and will also act as the IMO representative to conferences and meetings dealing with piracy issues. Following a meeting on 20 January 2012 between the UN Secretary-General and the IMO Secretary-General on the need for increased cooperation between IMO and UN, UN specialized agencies and other relevant international organizations, IMO organized and hosted a counter-piracy capacity-building conference. At the meeting, IMO signed strategic partnerships with the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO); the United Nations Political Office for Somalia (UNPOS)-now United Nations Assistance Mission in Somalia (UNSOM); the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC); the World Food Programme (WFP); and the European Union. The partnerships are intended to ‘reaffirm the mutual commitments to improving coordination at all levels and across all relevant programmes and activities, with a view to strengthening the anti-piracy and maritime capacity of States in the Western Indian Ocean and Gulf of Aden area and developing viable and sustainable alternatives to piracy in Somalia’. IMO is also part of the Regional Maritime Coordination Mechanism (RMCM) to promote technical cooperation on counter-piracy issues between the regional Somali authorities and the TFG. IMO issues monthly, quarterly and annual reports on piracy and armed robbery incidents. Links to IMO reports and other resources can be found here.

INTERPOL is exploring opportunities for formal cooperation agreements with naval forces involved in maritime piracy. INTERPOL and naval forces are discussing an information-sharing model, which would provide naval forces access to INTERPOL’s fingerprint database, and allow naval forces to fingerprint suspected pirates at the time of their capture. INTERPOL has already agreed to this type of information-sharing model with both NATO and EU NAVFOR.

The 4th version (August 2011) of the shipping industry’s Best Management Practices (BMP4) has a ‘new subsection on “Prosecution of Pirates – Assisting Law Enforcement Authorities”, which was produced in conjunction with INTERPOL, is now included. This new section includes reference to a 24-hr helpline and to INTERPOL’s new Maritime Task Force website.’ INTERPOL is working with the shipping industry to ensure that evidence is preserved on ships following incidents of piracy and has produced guidelines on evidence collection and preservation which is part of INTERPOL’s task force mandate.

No activity planned or implemented.

No activity planned or implemented.

INTERPOL continues to provide law enforcement training courses to Somalia and other Eastern African countries to combat the maritime piracy threat in the region. Through the EU funded, Law Enforcement Capacity Building in East Africa project, INTERPOL focuses on enhancing the capacity of regional governments and forces, by providing crime scene investigation training and equipment to seven countries in the region. Working alongside the UNODC, INTERPOL has conducted training of police officers from Mauritius and the Seychelles as well as a number of other joint activities listed in the UNODC Counter-Piracy Programme February 2012 brochure. In June 2012, INTERPOL partnered with the UK led RAPPICC to develop a centre for collecting personal data used to identify suspected pirates, including fingerprints, name or alias, date and place of birth, nationality, sex, driving licenses, identification documents and personal data. In addition to the new centre, INTERPOL provided the Seychellois police with an Automated Fingerprint Identification System, or AFIS, which allows better collection of biometric data from the prison population, including from convicted pirates.

In an effort to improve Somalia’s capacity, INTERPOL, at the request of the Somalia Maritime Piracy Task Force, reviewed and provided feedback on the Somalia Security Bill of 2011. INTERPOL is currently working with Somalia on a Joint Somali and INTERPOL initiative to improve diplomatic relations among affected countries, in effort to identify Somali pirates that have been captured by navies, and prosecuted in foreign jurisdictions.

INTERPOL continues to work with both regional and international partners in an effort to enhance the rule of law and regional law enforcement capacities, as well as promote information-sharing platforms. In April 2011, INTERPOL sent their first Incident Response Team (IRT), a team of experts that assist in crime scene investigation and evidence collection, into Durban, South Africa to investigate a Greek vessel released by Somali pirates. The IRT collected both physical and digital evidence from the ship’s satellite phone, fingerprints and DNA, as well as testimony from the ship’s crew. In July 2011, INTERPOL launched their Global Maritime Piracy Database to collect and disseminate information about pirates and pirate attacks. This database has allowed INTERPOL and their international partners to identify organizers and leaders of pirate networks. Further, INTERPOL's digital photo album contains photos of more than 300 suspected pirates and has also proven useful in identifying captors. Additionally in 2011, INTERPOL launched Project EVEXI (Evidence Exploitation Initiative), a project that provides investigators with INTERPOL-supported procedure for intelligence gathering, evidence collection, and information sharing. This project allows for evidence to be collected in a manner that can be effectively used in the prosecutions of pirates. In June 2012, INTERPOL partnered with UK led RAPPICC to develop a centre for collecting data that can be used as evidence as well as to identify suspected pirates. The evidence collected will be used to prosecute suspects and pursue the organizers and leaders of pirate networks. INTERPOL currently has information-sharing agreements with both EUROPOL and NATO, and is in discussions to develop a similar information-sharing model with active naval forces such as the Netherlands and Denmark.

INTERPOL coordinates with both regional and international partners in the fight against maritime piracy. In July 2011, INTERPOL launched their Maritime Piracy Global Database to collect and disseminate information about pirates and pirate attacks. The database, ‘contains more than 4,000 records of personal information on pirates and financiers; pirates’ telephone numbers and phone records; hijacking incidents; vessels and ransom payments, submitted by law enforcement and private industry partners. INTERPOL has created a digital photo album with photographs of more than 300 suspected pirates submitted by law enforcement and military agencies. The images are shared with the Organization’s counter-piracy partners and are used when debriefing released hostages to help identify their attackers.’(Annual Report 2011) Also in 2011, INTERPOL opened a Command and Coordination Centre in the Singapore Regional Bureau to support piracy investigations in the Indian Ocean theatre. In 2012, INTERPOL, along with IGOs and state-partners, joined with the United Kingdom (UK) and Indian Ocean Commission (IOC) led Regional Anti-Piracy Prosecution & Intelligence Coordination Centre (RAPPICC), headquartered in Victoria, Seychelles, to create a centre for the sharing and dissemination of information. INTERPOL is currently working alongside EUROJUST and EUROPOL in effort to develop a global law enforcement and prosecution strategy for maritime piracy.

REFLECS3 supports the release of hostages held by Somali pirates through initiatives such as Project Onion, a Seychelles-led humanitarian project seeking the release of hostages. The Centre also supports military partners by aiding in effective domain awareness and enhanced capaibilities to identify and interdict suspect vessels.

REFLECS3 is continuing to establish points of contact in regional countries. The Centre aides regional partners through assistance in intelligence development, providing support for invesitgators and prosecutors in the region and through support for vocational development of investigators and prosecutors working against transnational organized crime.

 

REFLECS3 is continuing the work of RAPPICC by supporting its partners to build prosecution cases against individuals who have profited from piracy. For one, REFLECS supports the Seychelles Piracy Cell, which has joined in a multi-country parternership inititaive with INTERPOL focused on evidence gathering and coordiation of forces to mount and pursue piracy prosecutions.

The Centre is also planning to support Senior Investigating Officers in the region to re-examine cross-border crimes and will help provide expertise in advanced investigative techniques to assist these officers in securing convictions. 

REFLECS3 works in accordance with national and international law with regional and international partners to share intelligence, techniques and skills with participating partner states and agencies to allow industry-information, criminal intelligence, and evidence to be developed against organized Somali piracy groups and other transnational criminals. REFLECS3 continues to enjoy a very strong working relationship with U.S. partners such as the FBI and NCIS, as well as INTERPOL, EUROPOL, UNODC, the Indian Ocean Commission, the IMO, EUCAP Nestor, and a wide range of European police forces.

No activity planned or implemented.

No activity planned or implemented.

In UNGA resolution 66/231 (5 April 2012), the Assembly expressed their grave concern at the threats piracy and armed robbery at sea pose to the safety and welfare of seafarers and other persons (para 86).

No activity planned or implemented.

No activity planned or implemented.

No activity planned or implemented.

UN General Assembly resolutions 55/7 (27 February 2001), 59/24 (4 February 2005), 60/30 (8 March 2006), and 64/71 (12 March 2010) emphasize the importance of reporting acts of piracy and sharing information between states affected by piracy and call upon states to facilitate the apprehension and prosecution of suspected pirates, and urge all states to adopt national legislation to combat piracy and armed robbery at sea. The first major resolution against piracy, UNGA resolution 54/31, which concerned law of the sea, was adopted on 24 November 1999. On 8 June 2000, the Secretary-General of the IMO wrote the Secretary-General of the UN (A/55/311), asking that the UNGA address the issue of the proliferation of piracy. On 1 May 2002, the Secretary-General transmitted IMO Assembly resolution A.922(22) (29 November 2001), Code of Practice for the Investigation of the Crimes of Piracy and Armed Robbery Against Ships, to the members of the UNGA. UNGA resolution 66/231 (5 April 2012), along with resolutions 65/37 A (7 December 2010) and 65/37 B (4 April 2011) emphasises the importance of information sharing, urges states to work with IMO to supress piracy (para 84), encourage states to implement international law and national laws to facilitate the prosecution of pirates (para 85), and asks states to take multilateral action to address the financing and facilitating of piracy (para 89), along with recognizing IMO circular (MSC.1/Circ.1404), Guidelines for flag state and other authorities to assist investigators to collect evidence after a hijack, released after the May 2011 Working Group 1 meeting during the IMO Maritime Safety Committee (MSC89) conference in London. The UNGA supports the Best Management Practice (v4) as drafted by the IMO and the shipping industry (MSC 89/25/Add.4, annex 29), along with the Djibouti Code of Conduct (IMO C 102/14, annex, attachment 1), which has been signed by 20 of the 21 eligible states. The UNGA has urge all states to implement resolution A.1026(26), adopted on 2 December 2009, and has called on states to become parties to the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Maritime Navigation (UN Treaty series, vol 1678, No 29004) in their resolution dated 5 April 2012 (A/RES/66/231).

The UNGA has coordinated their counter-piracy initiatives with the UNSC and notes the adoption by the Security Council of resolutions 1816 (2008) of 2 June 2008, 1838 (2008) of 7 October 2008, 1846 (2008) of 2 December 2008, 1851 (2008) of 16 December 2008, 1897 (2009) of 30 November 2009,1918 (2010) of 27 April 2010, 1950 (2010) of  23 November 2010, 1976 (2011) of 11 April 2011, 2015 (2011) of 24 October 2011, and 2020 (2011) of 22 November 2011, as well as the statements by the President of the Security Council  of 25 August 2010 (S/PRST/2010/16) and of 11 May 2011 (S/PRST/2011/10) and also notes that the authorization in resolution 1816 (2008), and the provisions in resolutions 1838 (2008), 1846 (2008), 1851 (2008),  1897 (2009), 1950 (2010), and 2020 (2011) apply only to the situation in Somalia and do not affect the rights, obligations or responsibilities of Member States under international law.

No activity planned or implemented.

No activity planned or implemented.

UNODC supported the Hostage Support Programme (HSP) until 2015, which is dedicated to the safe return of hostages as well as serving as a base of support for both the hostage and their family after the incident. The Hostage Relief Programme was an integral part of repatriating the hostages of the MV ICEBERG 1, the longest held hostages by Somali pirates and currently continues to provide support to the hostages remaining in Somalia. The HSP has five specific elements funded by the CGPCS Trust Fund: Objective 1: Monitor and track all hostages held in Somalia, Objective 2: Provide support while in captivity (to captives and familites), Objective 3: Facilitate recovery to a safe location, Objective 4: Assist with repatriation to home country, Objective 5: Provide victim support post release. As of 2014, the Hostage Support Programme has assisted in the repatriation home of 73 hostages (including the 11 Albedo hostages released in 2014). Though the Programme is no longer under the umbrella of UNODC, it is in operation. 

The UNODC Maritime Crime Programme (MCP) delivers assistance to strengthen law enforcement capabilities and to improve prison conditions and capacity in Kenya, Seychelles, Mauritius, Tanzania, Maldives, and Somalia. In all but Somalia the UNODC assists with judicial, prosecutorial, and police capacity-building programmes in addition to office equipment, law books, and specialist coast guard equipment. In Seychelles, the design for a Vulnerable Prisoner Unit for Montagne Posee prison was completed and submitted to the government in May 2014. Construction will begin soon. Within Somalia, the MCP’s focus is on upgrading its prisons and courts with the hope that Somali pirates convicted in other countries can serve out their sentence at home. The Hargeisa prison has been completed in Somaliland, while the UNODC is currently constructing and upgrading prisons within Puntland. In March of 2012 the first prisoners were transferred from the Seychelles to Hargeisa as part of the UNODC’s Piracy Prisoner Transfer Programme (PPTP). Throughout 2014 the PPTP seeks to support operations at the Hargeisa prison and the Mandhera Prison. The Maritime Crime Programme has also introduced best management practices for investigation to the police in Kenya and the Seychelles. In a recently launched new flagship training initiative, the Maritime Crime Programme has also continued to support training courses on maritime crime and criminal justice; in 2014 they delivered a week-long training course to 28 judges, prosecutors, and legislative advisers from Kenya, Tanzania, Seychelles, and Mauritius and have held the first meetings of two working groups set up to establish and train a prison inspectorate and develop emergency plans for a Mauritius prison system. 

"The Maritime Crime Programme focuses on supporting law enforcement and criminal justice institutions within Somalia so that they will one day have the ability to deter, apprehend, prosecute and punish piracy and other maritime crimes domestically." The MCP provided training in December 2013 to the Somaliland Coast in the first of a series of such trainings. Additionally, the MCP Piracy Prisoner Transfer Programme which transfers detainees from prosecuting states back to Somalia to carry out their sentences has gone hand in hand with constructing and improving prison facilities in South Central Somalia, Somaliland and Puntland, providing training and mentoring to custodial staff and implementing education, vocational training and rehabilitation programmes for detainees. Work on facilities in Hargesia, Bosasso, Mandera and Garowe has been completed, while groud has been broken on the refurbishment of Mogadishu Prison where UNODC staff will  also begin a training and mentoring program. In Puntland, medical equipment and medicine have been delivered to Garowe and Bosasso Prison and in Hargesia and Mandera, training and mentoring of Somali prison personnel as well as vocational training for inmates will be ongoing until the end of 2015.

Additionally in 2015, the Maritime Crime Programme and OBP jointly conducted a survey of Somali prisoners, in order to explore motivations and deterrents for participating in piracy. The full report can be found here.

UNODC has completed reviews of the legal frameworks of Kenya, Mauritius, Seychelles and Tanzania, assessing the adequacy for meeting the demands of prosecuting piracy and recommended changes to be implemented in the short, medium and long term. In Somalia, a draft anti-piracy law has been passed to the three authorities in Somalia for implementation. The UNODC Counter-Piracy Programme has also supported prosecutors in Kenya, the Seychelles, and Somalia by providing training and administrative support, and has developed and improved court facilities, such as a refurbishment of the Shimo la Tewa Courtroom in Mombasa, Kenya. With cooperation from INTERPOL, UNODC has facilitated a Learning & Exchange of Experiences course between prosecutors and judges with participants from Seychelles, Kenya, Tanzania, Mauritius, and the Maldives. In March of 2012 the first prisoners were transferred from the Seychelles to Hargeisa prison in Somaliland as part of the UNODC’s Piracy Prisoner Transfer Programme. In late summer 2013, the UNODC together with donor nations such as the United Kingdom and the Netherlands, as well as the Trust Fund, begun construction on a new Supreme Court Annex in Victoria, Seychelles. The new building will have modern courtrooms and advanced technology to conduct piracy trials and other trials that require special security arrangements. The UNODC’s Piracy Prisoner Transfer Programme continues to work on vocational training at constructed prisons. Successful graduates of vocational training will be presented with certificates outlining the skills that they have acquired to improve their employment prospects after their release. In Hargeisa, Somaliland, the UNODC began on 4 September, 2013, an entry level training for 35 prison officers; the training covered topics such as prison management, treatment of prisoners, human rights, and security. The course will lasted three weeks and marked the beginning of an extensive and comprehensive training plan that the UNODC expects to deliver until the end of 2014. The UNODC has continued to facilitate the repatriation of Somali inmates in 2014, with 18 Somali nationals, who had completed their sentences in Kenya, returning to Somalia on 4 February, 2014.  UNODC, has also continued to support training courses on maritime crime and criminal justice; in 2014 they delivered a week-long training course to 28 judges, prosecutors, and legislative advisers from Kenya, Tanzania, Seychelles, and Mauritius. Also in 2014, the Piracy Prisoner Transfer Programme completed training of 35 custodial staff in Hargeisa, Somaliland and 35 recruits at the Puntland Prison Service. The courses focused on human rights, anti-corruption, search procefures and professional standards and included training for senior and duty prison officers on crisis management, dynamic and static security and observation techniques.  

UNODC is coordinating all activities around the Horn of Africa with other UN agencies, including the IMO, WFP, UNDP as well as with the EU and regional States.

No activity planned or implemented.

No activity planned or implemented.

The Hostage Relief Programme is a joint program run by both the UNODC and UNPOS. The Hostage Relief Programme is dedicated to the safe return of hostages as well as serving as a base of support for both the hostage and their family after the incident. The program is funded by the Counter Piracy Trust Fund and is divided into five phases aimed at providing the hostage with support throughout the process. Recently, The Hostage Relief Programme was an integral part of repatriating the hostages of the MV ICEBERG 1, the longest held hostages by Somali pirates. 

UNPOS has worked alongside UNODC to implement messaging projects that raise awareness of the negative repercussions of piracy. 

UNPOS has worked with and supported numerous initiatives in the region that aimed at promoting Somali peace and stability.  It is currently in discussions with regional and international partners, including the UN family, concerning a strategic review of its mission in an attempt to determine the UN’s future role in Somalia. 

UNPOS worked closely with the new Federal Government of Somalia in order to implement the Government’s “Six Pillar Policy.” UNPOS coordinated with Somali government to promote reconciliation through dialogue between Somali parties, to assist efforts to address the issue of “Somaliand,” to coordinate support for the peace process among Somalia’s neighbors and the international community, and to play a leading political role in peace-building activities.

In January 2010, the UNPOS convened a technical meeting at which the TFG, Puntland, and Somaliland established the ‘Somali Contact Group on Counter-Piracy’, previously known as the 'Kampala Process’, now the 'Regional Maritime Coordination Mechanism' (RMCM). Galmudug has also joined (S/2011/662, para 15). The RMCM is based on the ‘Djibouti Code of Conduct’ and is designed to implement maritime legislation and strengthen Somali capacity to prosecute pirates. According to the report by the UN Secretary General (S/2011/360) on the modalities for the establishment of specialized Somali anti-piracy courts, UNPOS is “encouraging the transitional federal institutions to pass counter-piracy legislation before the end of the transitional period.” It has been indicated that counter-piracy legislation will not be passed until after the End of Transition (20 August 2012), when a new elected parliament is in place (S/2012/50, fn 13). The UNPOS has assisted in forming the Somalia Law Reform Programme Expert Group (the Law Reform Group), which has drafted agreed upon anti-piracy legislation and prison and prisoner transfer legislation. No activity planned or implemented.

UNPOS plays the crucial role of coordinating programs within Somalia. UNPOS is tasked with coordinating Somali activity as the secretariat for the RMCM, coordinating UN and regional agency activity through the Integrated Task Force Nairobi Cluster, coordinating regional bi-lateral activity and monitoring private security activity, as well as serving as the liaison to naval forces, particularly concerning the impact on the political and military situation on land. UNPOS also works alongside the CGPCS Chairman to assist them with their work in the region. With Somalia’s political process advancing, UNPOS will expand their activities in Somalia and their coordination with the new Somali government. The UN Security Council has endorsed UNPOS to promote reconciliation through dialogue between Somali parties, to assist efforts to address the issue of ‘Somaliland,’ to coordinate support for the peace process, and to play a leading role in peace-building activities.  

No activity planned or implemented.

No activity planned or implemented.

No activity planned or implemented.

No activity planned or implemented.

No activity planned or implemented.

No activity planned or implemented.

TRADE's central goal is to provide maritime tactical training to countries in the Western Indian Ocean region that are affected by piracy. 

The primary aim of TRADE is to increase awareness and de-confliction of maritime tactical training capabilities inherent in the maritime forces operating in the Western Indian Ocean or additional training activities stakeholders wish to deploy to the region. 

No activity planned or implemented.

No activity planned or implemented.

No activity planned or implemented.

No activity planned or implemented.

Capacity of regional coastal states is being supported and reinforeced by the CMR Western Indian Ocean MARSIC project, which is aimed at promoting the resolutions issued by the Djibouti Code of Conduct (2009). MARSIC supports the coastal maritime administrations, law enforcement and coast guards with the objective of tackling maritime security threats, including piracy and armed robbery against ships. The methods of intervention include "education and training through a regional training center in Djibouti, information sharing through a network of regional centers (ReMISC and ISC) and building capacity of coastal States to respond at sea to piracy threats". From 2011 to 2013 the Djibouti Regional Training Center (DRTC) has held 15 courses, hosted two anti-piracy exercises and has trained more than 250 staff from 20 countries, including all Somali entities.  

No activity planned or implemented.

The CMR Western Indian Ocean law enforcement capacity building in East Africa (CRIMLEA) project was aimed at "enabling the national law enforcement agencies to efficiently respond to maritime piracy at the regional level, providing them with the necessary training and equipment to conduct these operations in compliance with the local laws". The mandate and funding of CRIMLEA spanned 2010-2013.

An additional component of CMR Western Indian Ocean MARSIC is the Information Sharing Centre (ISC) network. The network relies on three operational centers: the Regional Maritime Information Sharing Centre (ReMISC), located in Sana'a, Yemen, operational since the beginning of 2011; and the ISC of Mombasa and the ISC of Dar-Es-Salam, which are operated within their respective Maritime Rescue Coordination Centres". Further, the CMR Monitoring, Support and Evaluation Mechanism (CRIMSON) project is in place to strengthen trans-regional coordination, coherence and complementaries among the various projects in the Critical Maritime Routes Programme and with respect to other relevant EU initiatives. In terms of future coordination, a project currently in the planning phases, the Critical Maritime Routes in the Indian Ocean (CRIMARIO), will aim at enhancing maritime domain awareness by supporting cooperation in the Indian Ocean and South Asia areas.

No activity planned or implemented.

No activity planned or implemented.

No activity planned or implemented.

No activity planned or implemented.

No activity planned or implemented.

No activity planned or implemented.

FATF research discovered individuals facilitating the payment of ransoms are successful at avoiding bulk cash disclosures/declarations and/or suspicious transaction reporting to the financial intelligence units (FIU). Member-States have implemented FATF recommendations on preventative measures to combat money laundering and the financing of organized crime – terrorism, the mafia, and piracy. The recommendations include record keeping and controls of certain cash transactions. The FATF encourages targeted financial sanctions to disrupt the financial flow associated with piracy for ransom – e.g. track and seize assets, prevent pirates using international banking systems, prevent the use of cash carriers, and financial sanctions. Sanctions are authorized under UN Security Council Resolution 1844 (2008).

The FATF is encouraged member-States to coordinate intelligence sharing, as 40-60% of the proceeds from Somalia piracy leave the country. FATF advocated a coordinated domestic anti-money laundering (AML) regime and close coordination between jurisdictions. Further, International law enforcement and individuals who facilitate ransom payments need to cooperate in information sharing.