Togo possesses a French-based civil law legal system, blending some African traditional law with the Napoleonic Code. Currently, Togo's Maritime Navigation Code, Ordinance No. 29, criminalizes piracy. It is based on French colonial laws, which limited the exercise of criminal jurisdiction to crimes committed by or against Togolese flagged vessels. Togo recently adopted updated anti-piracy legislation in 2015 modeled on Article 101 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, to expand the application to universal jurisdiction. In addition it includes clear personal passive and active jursisdiction.